Components commonly used in EMC peripheral circuits

As a protection device, TVS is faster than varistor and gas discharge tube, and has poor surge resistance. It is a clamping device and the clamping voltage is more stable. Often used as an electrostatic protection device, it can also be used in combination with a varistor and a gas discharge tube as a stepped protection to release surge energy.
What are the commonly used components of EMC peripheral circuits, and what precautions need to be paid for selection
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X capacitance
The X capacitor acts as a safety capacitor and is connected between the L and N lines to filter out the differential mode interference of the power supply. Its volume is large, but the ripple current is allowed to be high and the withstand voltage is high. X1, X2 or X3 capacitors can be selected according to different applications. For example, the commonly used X2 capacitor can be used in the place where the transient voltage of the power grid is ≤2.5KV.
Y capacitance
The Y capacitor is usually connected across the primary circuit and the secondary circuit or between the primary circuit and the protective ground to filter out common mode noise. Its capacity is usually small to meet leakage current requirements.
Y capacitors can be divided into Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4 grades. For different grades, they can withstand different pulse voltages and require sufficient margin in electrical and mechanical properties to avoid breakdown short-circuits and jeopardize personal safety.
Differential mode inductance
Usually used to filter out low frequency interference. During the differential mode surge test, a part of the energy is stored and then released. It will also have the same effect in the static test at the output end. If the differential mode inductor is placed behind the rectifier bridge, be careful of the high voltage generated when its energy is released to damage the rectifier bridge.

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